The following text is a slightly modified machine translation and may have some unnatural parts.
On January 25, 2021, the Chugoku Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry seminar "Thinking about the long-term management of an organization responsible for traditional culture and kagura-Because it is now, management with an eye on the future-" was held remotely. It seems that Geihoku Kagura in Hiroshima Prefecture has a momentum to be supported by both the public and private sectors.
I'm not good at taking notes, but the outline is as follows.
First, Mr. Naoto Kitano, Dean / Professor, Faculty of Media Business, Hiroshima University of Economics, begins with a greeting, "Developing successors to organizations that carry traditional culture and developing viewers."
The aim of the Chugoku Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry is to integrate the history, culture, and industry of the Chugoku region and improve added value. Utilization of local resources is conceivable, but Kagura is a typical example of its appeal. There are more than 500 organizations in the Chugoku region that inherit Kagura. There is a need to pass it on to the next generation.
Then, a lecture by Mrs. Chisako Takashima, Associate Professor, Department of Arts and Culture, Faculty of Cultural Policy, Shizuoka University of Art and Culture began.
Mrs. Takashima is studying the field of art management. Originally it was a study that originated in Europe and the United States, but because Japan has its own culture, it is different from Western research.
In 2018, the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties was amended to promote the preservation and utilization of cultural properties. Local governments will be required to formulate comprehensive policies regarding the preservation and utilization of traditional performing arts.
Utilization is reminiscent of performances on the stage, but from another perspective, it is a show of performing arts. Then, there will be an organization that inherits only the performances performed at the show. However, when the performing arts get tired of tourists, the preservation group itself may disappear.
In addition, traditional performing arts are now being taken up as educational subjects for elementary and junior high schools, and have achieved certain effects. However, when going to high school or university, more children will leave their hometown. On the other hand, the successors of traditional performing arts are aging. Therefore, the challenge is to acquire successors from the late teens to the 50s.
As is often the case with traditional performing arts, she points out that there is a problem that it is difficult to repeat after watching it once.
As an example, Odawara's Sagami doll play is taken up. Currently, only 5 groups have inherited it. Originally it was entertainment in the area, but now it is said that performances in the city and overseas are increasing.
In the past, the cast was fixed, but now it is flexibly changed to make it multirole.
There, the rules are changed so that it can be continued comfortably according to the modern lifestyle. For example, women were allowed to participate. Maternity leave is also allowed.
In the past, maintenance of dolls was outsourced to an outside contractor, but due to the high cost, the dolls are now being manufactured in-house by the staff.
On the financial side, it is currently receiving subsidies from private foundations and public support.
By the way, it was said that the doll play would run out of property if it was absorbed.
Also, they do not in-house everything, but outsource it as needed.
Nowadays, there is interaction between groups, and there is also support when there is not enough manpower.
Traditional performing arts consist of performers + tools + places.
There is a high possibility that the raw materials for tools will soar and cannot be procured domestically.
On the other hand, there are circumstances in which it is difficult to earn a living just by making tools. In the long run, it cannot be maintained without streamlining tool production and procurement.
At Ningyo Joruri, they consult with the staff of the National Bunraku Theater. There are also staff who have moved from the National Theater to Tokushima Prefecture, so they may consult with Tokushima operators. It is also necessary to connect across regions. In addition, a place for information exchange that can be accessed by various people is required.
Looking at the performance organization, regarding the rules and division of labor, it is necessary to change the rules according to the times and to have a division of labor system based on the rules. In Odawara's doll play, only the performers have been inherited, and Tayu and Shamisen have been commissioned by an external organization in Tokyo. Currently, they are proceeding with in-house production.
The rules tend to be stricter when trying to keep tradition. However, if it does not fit the lifestyle, it will be difficult to participate and continue. It is important to review the rules in developing successors.
A review of the rules requires defining what tradition is. Tradition does not seem to have changed, but it has. It is necessary to reconsider the traditions that should be preserved and the points that can be changed.
It is necessary to consider whether the rules and division of labor make it easy for everyone to participate, or not to put an excessive burden on one person. This is because there are cases where it becomes difficult to survive if one of the core members is removed.
It is necessary to share the same issues that the same performing arts have.
You should also consult with public interest groups. In addition, industry-related departments are also required to participate in public organizations. By doing so, financial stability will be achieved.
Q. Is there a financial problem with the utilization of traditional performing arts? We also need to consider when their passion has diminished.
A. It is important not to be swayed by the system. It is necessary to look after the subsidy has expired.
The rules have been changed in the Sagami Ningyo play. Not only doll play but also people who are interested in costumes and people who are attracted to tools have been acquired. In addition, it is also important to allow temporary leave (though it seems to be maternity leave).
High school student questions
Q. I belong to the Geihoku Kagura group and am interested in preserving old Kagura. Geihoku Kagura specializes in performing arts, and the sacred elements are fading. Some members have doubts about that. How to balance? In addition, it is difficult for the Hiroshima Kagura troupe to cooperate with each other.
A. There is a nationwide tendency to neglect the aspect of Shinto ritual. It depends on whether it is a Shinto ritual or a show, but it is required to have variety so that the audience can step into the essence step by step. For example, there are organizations that hold workshops before performances.
Even in the Sagami doll play, it was not united from the beginning. It changed as a problem-aware group worked hard. Therefore, the current situation is that such groups have no choice but to do their best. Connecting with the outside does not violate tradition. It is necessary to work on the long term to increase the number of people who want to do it little by little.
Then, after a break, Mr. Yoshiyuki Takasaki, a lecturer at the Faculty of Business Administration, Seijoh University, will begin about "Changes and Responses to the Environment Surrounding Hiroshima Kagura."
Mr. Takasaki is also a director of the NPO Hiroshima Kagura Institute of Arts. He was born in Hiroshima and raised in Hiroshima.
Last year's news was as follows
- Kagura Koshien (National convention by high school students) was canceled in Corona.
- There is no prospect of a performance in Corona. Kagura groups sometimes had financial difficulties.
- Kagura costume store fell into a financial crisis due to corona and dismissed employees.
By the way, Hiroshima Kagura (Geihoku Kagura) is a whiz kid of the folk performing arts world. The easy-to-understand content of poetic justice is popular with people who see Kagura for the first time and foreigners.
In Hiroshima, the first floor seats (5,000 yen ticket fee) in the large hall are sold out in advance. It has the ability to mobilize spectators, such as the Kagura Dome (accommodating 3,000 people) becoming full. It goes beyond the context of village performing arts.
Against the background of its popularity, tourism utilization is becoming more active. The Hiroshima Keizai (economic) Doyukai is proposing the creation of a lively city using Hiroshima Kagura.
There are five types of kagura in Hiroshima (Geikita Kagura, Aki Juni Jingi Kagura, Hiba Kojin Kagura, Bingo Kagura, and Geiyo Islands Kagura).
In Geihoku Kagura, competitions became popular after the war. The principle of competition worked and the art was refined and became gorgeous. Someday the tourists' eyes were turned to Kagura. And it changed from Geihoku Kagura to Hiroshima Kagura. It is now a cultural tourism content.
* About population transition in Geihoku area
The population is declining significantly. In the 1980s, the population was 70,000, but now it has decreased to about 38,000. In addition, the population is aging. It is necessary to consider the operation of the Kagura troupe in a situation where the population is declining at an accelerating rate.
* Kagura 1.0
Indigenous Kagura. Rural festival
It was linked to the festival, and the bearer of Kagura was limited to the eldest son of the farmer. The number of performances was small, and it was covered by donations only from the parishioners. The stage was a shrine.
* Kagura 2.0
The crisis of Kagura under ideological control (censorship) by GHQ. Shinmai (New Mai Dance) was created by Junzo Sasaki with the motif of Noh and Kabuki performances. It has become established as an entertainment in the neighborhood.
The male labor force was absorbed into the city. As a result, women and children entered Kagura. In addition, Kagura has come to be performed at local community centers as a stage.
* Kagura 3.0
At that time, a novel production was seen, such as putting fluorescent paint on the costume and the Oni demon's neck flying in the air.
The Nakakawado Kagura troupe confidently attended the competition for the creative performance "Itabuki Palace (Itabuki no Miya)", but the judges ignored it because it was not a kagura. However, the venue was the most exciting of the day.
They were asked if they were dancing Kagura for the judges. Therefore, the place to perform was moved from the local to the theater in the city, and an independent performance was held.
As a result, Geihoku Kagura became widely known in Hiroshima. In addition, the entertainment became stronger. Some groups have set the goal of overthrowing the Nakakawado Kagura troupe.
* Kagura 4.0
Artisticization on the stage
Performed with the Symphony Orchestra in Oroch. "Itsukushima" is a creative program created by subsidies. Popular as a local kagura in Miyajima Island.
Specialized division of labor has occurred. Division of labor into director, screenwriter, sound, lighting, etc.
They appeared in Paris Fashion Week. There is also Kagura for inbound tourists.
Live streaming without spectators in Corona. They raised money through crowdfunding. They received a total of about 3 million yen from about 160 people.
* Current status of Kagura troupe's management resources (questionnaire)
- The number of troupes has decreased from 54 to 51 in the last 10 years.
- The ratio of men to women is 6: 1.
- The number of members in their teens to 30s has decreased. It is aging.
- Some groups practiced twice a week instead of practicing three times a week.
- The number of practice groups is increasing only just before the festival.
* Performance status
The number of co-starring conventions is decreasing. The event hasn't changed. 17 groups perform more than 10 times a year. Among them, the Kinsho Kagura troupe stands out. This is largely due to the ability to dance "Itsukushima". Performed more than 40 times a year.
* Activity policy
- Many groups want to continue their traditional performances.
- Six groups want to make a surprise for the audience.
There are many challenging and extroverted Kagura troupes.
- Shortage of members. There are no young people. Balancing work and home.
- On the other hand, there are few worries about raising necessary expenses.
* Opinion of lack of successors
- Difficult to maintain the status quo.
- Members in their 20s and 30s live in other areas and cannot participate in the practice. In production they will participate behind the scenes.
- There is less awareness that fire brigades and kagura groups are essential.
Shifting to a loose connection
- Reduction of activities.
- Polarization of the Kagura group with management resources and orientation (conservative / progressive).
- Young people can be taken by cram schools and soccer boys.
- Entertainment. You can understand it just by looking at it once Flexibility due to intangible cultural properties (can change dance, etc.).
- Many inheritance groups.
- Existence of support organization.
- Existence of dedicated facilities (Kagura Dome, etc.).
Kagura can be expected to be supported by the business community. Take advantage of the momentum of tourism and ask for appropriate support.
- Flexibility: Wide range of expression * Kagura support movement. Challenge to new Kagura.
- Development of original performance.
- Increase in appearance requests.
- Income UP Name recognition UP Applicants UP.
It is required that a prominent Kagura group like the former Nakakawado Kagura troupe will come out and lead the whole.
* Kagura 5.0
- There is a need to build the next generation of Hiroshima Kagura.
- Isn't it okay to have a new kagura based on anime, movies, and novels?
- Example: Kabuki converted the anime "Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind" into Kabuki.
- There is nothing that Kabuki can do that Kagura cannot do.
- It takes a lot of effort and money to make a new kagura.
- Get business support and investment.
- Management and consulting by support organizations.
- It is hoped that a Kagura group with a willingness to take on challenges will appear.
- Take advantage of opportunities to make up for weaknesses.
- Promotion of Kagura as a town development.
- The direction of returning to the countryside can be seen due to the spread of remote work and the diversification of values.
* Sightseeing town development
- Collaboration with the welfare industry and the education world (* There is an example in Iwami Kagura about the welfare industry)
- Kagura may be possible as part of social rehabilitation.
- Immediately after the end of the war, the exhausted rural people regained their vitality with Kagura.
- People who went to the city felt nostalgia when they saw Kagura.
- Let's regain vitality with Kagura now that we are facing various difficulties.
Q. Are there any examples of actual Kagura animations regarding new Kagura initiatives?
A. There is currently no Kagura based on anime (Mr. Takasaki's own goal)
There is nothing that Kabuki can do that Kagura cannot do. The Oni demon extermination manga (Demon Slayer: Kimetsu no Yaiba) is gaining popularity (* Kimetsu no Yaiba has an element of Kagura).
As an example, a picture-story show of Kagura was made.
Q. Isn't the overall knowledge level lowered by just looking at it? There are also young members who are not interested in the history of the Kagura troupe. Decline in traditional awareness.
A. The show Kagura is a good grab. Therefore, the audience is made addictive and gradually leads to the essence. Holding study sessions and workshops, etc.
Since performing arts change, it is also necessary to see things with the current values. Already beyond the context of rural entertainment.
Q. It is also a wonderful report from an academic conference. It is held in Corona without spectators, but I would like to ask you about the future development of Kagura. About remote work. Furthermore, about the next generation of Kagura. About the number of mobilization in non-audience live distribution.
A. No numbers were given for the number of mobilizations
Side Opinion: Staying in the same place all the time is only folklore.
From the bureau, Kagura is a cultural content that represents the Chugoku area. We were wondering if we could send it out as intellectual property.
High school student questions:
Q. I belong to an organization that inherits the old dance (Kyumai). It is polarized between new and old. Even existing Kagura fans will be biased. Isn't there a gap?
A. The good thing about Hiroshima is that there are various kagura. Because there is an old dance, the new dance (Shinmai) stands out.
Side Opinion: It's a marketing issue. Both the retention of existing fans and the development of new demographics are required.
Side Opinion: A few years old children watching Kagura dance naturally. It 's this, this.
Due to the nature of public organizations, it is difficult to spotlight and support one organization. In Hiroshima, there is a mechanism to support via NPO.
Mrs. Takashima: Commercially successful theater companies such as Takarazuka are expanding their repertoire. Of course there are also failures.
It was the above contents. A high school student who said he left school early for today asked, but he was a student who could speak reasonably and was surprised by the high school students.
Also, as Mr. Sako said, he was involved in the regeneration of the company that dances the Aki Juni Jingi Kagura 30 years ago. It is said that the company is in trouble again after 30 years. This is also a scramble for the pie of Geihoku Kagura and Aki Juni Jingi. Aki Juni Jingi is inferior to Geihoku Kagura, which has become a tourist kagura.
Geihoku Kagura specializes in battles, and it seems that it is still excessive, but I was surprised to hear that the parties are looking further ahead.
During the seminar, it was treated as Hiroshima Kagura ≒ Geihoku Kagura. It was not a Kagura in Hiroshima prefecture with all five systems.